What is an "Expansive Soil"?Expansive soils contain minerals such as smectite clays that are capable of absorbing water. When they absorb water, they increase in volume. The more water they absorb, the more their volume increases. Expansions of ten percent or more are not uncommon. This change in volume can exert enough force on a building or other structure to cause damage.
It is the water that causes the soil to expand. Potholes on asphalt roads are caused by the expansion and contraction of the soil underneath them. When water causes the soil to expand it pushes the asphalt upward. When the soil dries it contracts and the asphalt makes a pothole.
This was known recently, however this was portrayed in the Quran 1400 years before it was discovered.
٣٩ وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنَّكَ تَرَى الْأَرْضَ خَاشِعَةً فَإِذَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا الْمَاءَ اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِي أَحْيَاهَا لَمُحْيِي الْمَوْتَىٰ ۚ إِنَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
"Rabua in Arabic رَبْوَة " means high ground. Its verb "Yarbu يَربُو " means rise higher. In this verse "Rabat رَبَتْ" means rose higher for females (it is also found in Quran 13:17 meaning float or rise to the top of water). In this verse water causes the soil to shake and rise upward.
How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that water causes soil to expand upward?
The Quran (Koran, the book of Islam) contains scientific knowledge that could not have been known 1400 years ago. It ranges from basic arithmetics to the most advanced topics in astrophysics. You are invited to go through those miracles and judge for yourself.