Gravitational Lensing

Dark Matter.

Astronomers have just confirmed the existence of Dark Matter. This mysterious Dark Matter is invisible however it provides the bulk of gravity that holds galaxies (not the regular matter that forms stars and planets). This invisible Dark Matter has weird collision properties (collisionless). Simply put: we cannot see Dark Matter nor collide with it but we can detect its gravity.

In this image, two huge clusters of invisible Dark Matter (in blue) clashed with each other:

With each cluster having a mass of 10,000 galaxies (each cluster a quadrillion times the mass of the Sun, 1015!!!) (See: Universe Today). However upon impact, instead of disintegrating into smaller pieces, they passed through each other unscathed! This means that they did not collide with each other either! They simply passed through each other!!!

Both clusters dragged our hydrogen. The first cluster dragged the hydrogen in one direction while the other cluster dragged the hydrogen in another direction. Then both clusters collided with each other. The Dark Matter passed through each other unscathed however the hydrogen dragged by the first cluster collided with hydrogen dragged by the second cluster.

However 1400 years ago the Quran said that God swears by celestial bodies that are invisible, that move, that sweep:

[Quran 81.15-16] I swear by those that are invisible (Khunnas خنس), that move, that sweep.

This Dark Matter is invisible, moves and sweeps our hydrogen.

General relativity predicted gravitational lensing, that is, the gravitational field generated by a galaxy causes the light passing through it to bend (change direction). Dark Matter does not emit any light but we can still map its location by using gravitational lensing, that is, by detecting where light is bending in places where it shouldn't. Moslems say that this is how God challenges nonbelievers to detect the remaining six superimposed Heavens:

[Quran 67.3-4] [Allah] is the one who created seven superimposed Heavens. You do not see variations in the formations of the Compassionate, so redirect your sight, do you see any creation (فطور)? Then redirect your sight again, your vision returns to you in defeat and regret.

Futtur in Arabic فُطور is a noun meaning creation out of nothing (it does not mean "rip"). Its verb in past tense is Fattara فَطَرَ and is found in Quran 6.79 meaning "created" (The verb that does mean "ripped" or "destroyed" is its opposite: Tafattara تَفَطّرَ as in Quran 19:90. Its noun is Tafattur تفطُّر).  So the question in the Quran is "Do you see any creation out of nothing?". Your initial answer should be NO. But in the second verse, when you are supposed to redirect your sight your answer will change to YES, with defeat. Why should you redirect your sight when you observe Dark Matter? Why should you look to another direction and then back? Well the gravity of a massive object makes you see the background stars in another direction:

Gravitational Lensing & Seven Heavens

This is how we detect Dark Matter today, the background images are lensed at a certain angle. Since Dark Matter does not emit any light then we have to trace the light from the background galaxies. From the distances and the angle of lensing we estimate the mass of the Dark Matter. So when detecting the superimposed seven heavens you have to look away and then back in order to measure the angle. No angle no Dark Matter.

How could he have known about Dark Matter and Gravitational Lensing?

 

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